Your barista prepares the same potent brew whether you order a double shot in a small white cup or a foamy latte with extra syrup by forcing water through a pad of densely packed espresso grounds.
However, espresso brewing is a relatively recent innovation. Angelo Moriondo of Turin, Italy, patented the first machine to brew coffee using steam pressure in 1885. As of today, he was born 171 years ago, which is why yesterday’s Google Doodle featured him.
The machine created by Moriondo was never mass-produced, but it paved the way for the espresso machines we use today. The principles used to brew the popular beverage have stood the test of time; they are part of the science behind a perfectly smooth cup.